Here is some further information/explanation regarding this extremely light gel, specifically for combination or greasy skins, very rich in plant extracts with remarkable sebum normalising and purifying characteristics: Barosma Betulina, Vitamin PP, Hawthorn extract and Hamemelis extract. Extracts of Carruba, Aloe and Saccharide Isomerate provide moisturisation in combination with this astringent effect. Remember that the P4 is not a cream; it is a serum, and what’s more, it is not a nourishing kind of serum, rather, it is a sebum-regulating serum. This means it was not formulated with the intention to hydrate or nourish (as creams are meant to do), but instead, it is intended to regulate the production of sebum for those with either oily or combination/normal skin types. That being said, P4 cannot be used on its own; it must be applied after cleansing the skin and then a day or night cream must be applied over top of the P4, after waiting a few minutes for the skin to absorb it. If a cream is not applied over top of the P4, the treatment is not complete and the skin will be missing crucial hydration and nourishment that a cream provides. An additional note about P4: for those with normal skin, or skin that tends to be on the dry side, we advise using P4 once a day, in the morning, under the day cream. Whereas for those with skin that is oily or acne-prone, we advise using it twice a day, once in the morning and once at night, but always under the respective creams. For combination and oily skin, it is advisable to apply in the evening as well, after cleansing, waiting 5 minutes before applying P3 Overnight Face Balm.